Chemical Bonds


Chemical bonds are long-lasting attraction forces between atoms that allow the formation of chemical compounds. However, there are four types of chemical bonds, namely ionic, covalent, metallic and hydrogen bonds. An ionic bond is formed when a metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, while the non-metal accepts that these electrons become a negatively charged anion. As a result, there will be an attraction between these positive and negative ions, so we can conclude that ionic bonds are usually formed between a metal and a non-metallic ion.

A covalent bond is formed as a result of the sharing of the electrons of the outer layer by the atoms, called valence electrons, in order to become stable thanks to the electronic configuration of the noble gases. The result of the formation of covalent bonds is a molecule. In metal bonding, there are many detached electrons that act as glue, giving the substance a defined structure. These electrons do not belong to a particular nucleus and that is the reason they can move freely, making metals good conductors of heat and electricity. Finally, hydrogen bonds are weak attractions between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton of a molecule and an electronegative atom of the other. There are also different types of covalent bonds such as single, double and triple bonds. Single bonds are formed when a single pair of electrons is shared between two atoms. Covalent double bonds are formed when two pairs of electrons are shared between the atoms involved. Triple covalent bonds are formed when three pairs of electrons are shared. An example of an ionic bond is the bond between magnesium and chlorine, magnesium is a metal and chlorine is a non-metal. The chloride ion has a charge of one negative and the magnesium ion has a charge of two positive. This means that the two elements together will form an ionic compound.

An example of a hydrogen bond is between hydrogen and oxygen because the electrostatic force attracts the polar molecules onto each other and attracts the positive and negative poles. Hydrogen bonds are a type of force that forms a special type of dipole-dipole attraction that occurs when a hydrogen atom is bonded to a highly electronegative atom such as oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine. The difference between ionic compounds and molecular compounds lies in the fact that molecular compounds are formed between two non-metals and that ionic compounds are formed between non-metals and metals, that molecular compounds can be transformed into solids. , gas or any type of liquid and ionic compounds. solid. A similarity between ionic compounds and molecular compounds is that they both have multiple atoms to form a complex structure, and that they involve the interaction between valence electrons.

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